Week 3 questions:

Question 1 –

See if you can find an example of a privacy breach that was reported in the Australian or international news in the last 6 months. What were the consequences? i.e. legal, political, financial, personal etc. What action was taken in response to the privacy breach? A major breach that happened in 2015 was when, Kmart Australia customers were hit by online privacy breach, due to a security hack. It was a privacy breach as customer’s personal information including their name, email address and telephone numbers were accessed by unauthorised users. Customers were notified of breach through email. The customers who were affected were the online users. Kmart acted effectively, they handled the breach and notified their customers quickly. This had consequences for Kmart though, customers were enraged that they did not show the breach across all social media platforms, whilst they emailed the concerned customers, they did not completely “publicly” expose this privacy breach. Customers may never shop online at Kmart again, impacting sales and their public image.

In reference to:

(Shoba Rao,News Corp Australia Network. (2015). Kmart Australia customers hit by online privacy breach in security hack. Retrieved 19 March, from http://www.news.com.au/technology/online/hacking/kmart-australia-customers-hit-by-online-privacy-breach-in-security-hack/news-story/9eb8eed08aedb63c28fa8164ff1e726b)

Question 2
Intellectual Property (IP) online, particularly copyright is keeping many lawyers in a job, but are they losing the battle? Topics such as plagiarism are still popular in universities, and occasionally a politician will get caught using someone else’s words. The Internet is not a copyright free zone, but it is certainly a battle ground. Watch the following video and discuss your rights to use copies or make mashups.

Copy rights directly affect everyone. There is now a bigger concept of relationships online, rather than the ‘ownership’of content. On YouTube, content ID recognises videos that are uploaded which breach the copy right aspect to registered content. This protection method does not allow the breached content to be uploaded. You cannot record a song on a mobile device and upload it to YouTube if it has a copy right policy and denies your use of it’s content. Your upload is compared to all files in their data base (such as YouTube), then the usage rights are analysed. If the usauge rights declare it can not be used unless you have been given permission and you upload it anyway, it will be removed. Some usuage rights state you can use their songs or content, aslong as you give them credit. The policy will directly affect what you can and cannot upload or use. In some cases, depending on what the company wants to do, they may give usuge rights to a video or contemt so that they can advertise their business through the hits or views it gets.

Mashups are when one video has multiple copy right owners. There may be a song included but that song has an artist and a publisher who have ownership rights. On YouTube (in reference to the video), all parties must register to the content ID system.

What AmI technologies are identified in the case?

Collection of data about individuals from hundreds of sources. Data is then sold data back to many of those sources.

Location tracking devices for employees (in a bid to minimise theft). They also have iris scanners which ensure a higher rank of security within the organisation.

They also have profiling technology where the company can identify people who are security risks by tracking their data and location.

What drives DMC’s officers to take the actions they took?

Being a multinational company, DMC knew that a scandal like the theft of data would compromise their reputation for securely holding national information thus destroying their business. By withholding the theft information, they thought they could minimise the issue or problem in the public eye. They did not want their buyers to think they were untrustworthy, especially with their own employees stealing valuable data.

DMC is the clear market leader in the aggregation of AmI data. Are there any comparisons you can make to technology companies today?

Ambient intelligence is utilised by companies like DMC, I would say that Google could be compared with other search engines such as Yahoo or Wikipedia and come out on top. While all of these companies utilise data information and have a way of identifying which data is most relevant to the user’s search, Google is widely renowned for its quick and efficient searches, and people connect with it in a variety of ways. Gmail is widely used for emails, Google drive is utilised for its data storage and Google scholar provides access to articles written for educational purposes.

How realistic is the description of governments using the technology and prohibiting immigration from states with no AmI data aggregation information?

Governments can use this technology to avoid money laundering or financial terrorism according to (Dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers. Profiling of money laundering and terrorism funding. Retrieved 22nd of March, from http://wwwis.win.tue.nl/~tcalders/dadm/lib/exe/fetch.php?media=iceis_contribution.pdf). Also in reference to: (Paul De Hert. Legal safeguards for privacy and data protection in ambient Intelligence. Retrieved on 22nd March, from http://www.vub.ac.be/LSTS/pub/Dehert/269.pdf) The article outlined that people could be refused immigration into a country if there is a lack of information withheld in data about them. This description seemed that it could be accurate, even if countries did not use AML data aggregation, such as third world countries they could be refused immigration into our country until further data was found on record and to add into our AML data.

What would be the impact of this digital divide?

While DMC is a leader of aml technologies, the whole digital world can have data accessed about them, the rest of the world without this digital data storage will have trouble connecting with countries who are further advanced. They may be less likely to have data theft but also will be left behind by the rest of the world using the internet to manage their countries and people.

List some of the ‘unintended consequences’ described in the case.

Their shares skyrocketed to the bottom of the stock exchange. People lost trust and respect for the company as they tried to cover it up, employee morale may have been tense and the boss also ran away (showing her unethical standards). The company fortunately received a boost of revenue by the government to keep afloat, as the multinational data was too essential to the security and privacy of the companies.

Do members of the class all agree on the issues raised by this case? What were the main points of difference (if any) in discussions?

Organisations need to act ethically if they are to survive in the public eye. By covering up the issue and not turning over the situation to the police, their reputation was shattered. If they had have reported it straight away and notified all of its users, I think DMC would be a bigger and more successful organisation. Most organisations on that large scale would legally deal with the matter to avoid being shut down or loss of profits, it sounds like DMC was not being ran ethically and had staff who proved a threat to company. This may have stemmed from the leadership, even the ceo ran when it came to the law, leaving DMC to look un ethical and un trustworthy.




This privacy policy has been compiled to better serve those who are concerned with how their ‘Personally identifiable information’ (PII) is being used online. PII, as used in US privacy law and information security, is information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context. Please read our privacy policy carefully to get a clear understanding of how we collect, use, protect or otherwise handle your Personally Identifiable Information in accordance with our website.

What personal information do we collect from the people that visit our blog, website or app?
We do not collect information from visitors of our site.

or other details to help you with your experience.


When do we collect information?


We collect information from you when you place an order or enter information on our site.

Provide us with feedback on our products or services 

How do we use your information?


We may use the information we collect from you when you register, make a purchase, sign up for our newsletter, respond to a survey or marketing communication, surf the website, or use certain other site features in the following ways:

       To personalize user’s experience and to allow us to deliver the type of content and product offerings in which you are most interested.
       To improve our website in order to better serve you.


How do we protect visitor information?


We do not use vulnerability scanning and/or scanning to PCI standards.
We only provide articles and information. We never ask for personal or private information like email addresses or credit card numbers.
We do not use Malware Scanning.

We do not use an SSL certificate
       We only provide articles and information. We never ask for personal or private information like email addresses, or credit card numbers.


Do we use ‘cookies’?


We do not use cookies for tracking purposes
You can choose to have your computer warn you each time a cookie is being sent, or you can choose to turn off all cookies. You do this through your browser (like Internet Explorer) settings. Each browser is a little different, so look at your browser’s Help menu to learn the correct way to modify your cookies.


If you disable cookies off, some features will be disabled that make your site experience more efficient and some of our services will not function properly.


However, you can still place orders .

Third-party disclosure


We do not sell, trade, or otherwise transfer to outside parties your personally identifiable information unless we provide users with advance notice. This does not include website hosting partners and other parties who assist us in operating our website, conducting our business, or serving our users, so long as those parties agree to keep this information confidential. We may also release information when it’s release is appropriate to comply with the law, enforce our site policies, or protect ours or others’ rights, property, or safety. 

However, non-personally identifiable visitor information may be provided to other parties for marketing, advertising, or other uses.


Third-party links


Occasionally, at our discretion, we may include or offer third-party products or services on our website. These third-party sites have separate and independent privacy policies. We therefore have no responsibility or liability for the content and activities of these linked sites. Nonetheless, we seek to protect the integrity of our site and welcome any feedback about these sites.




Google’s advertising requirements can be summed up by Google’s Advertising Principles. They are put in place to provide a positive experience for users. https://support.google.com/adwordspolicy/answer/1316548?hl=en 

We have not enabled Google AdSense on our site but we may do so in the future.


California Online Privacy Protection Act


CalOPPA is the first state law in the nation to require commercial websites and online services to post a privacy policy. The law’s reach stretches well beyond California to require a person or company in the United States (and conceivably the world) that operates websites collecting personally identifiable information from California consumers to post a conspicuous privacy policy on its website stating exactly the information being collected and those individuals with whom it is being shared, and to comply with this policy. – See more at: http://consumercal.org/california-online-privacy-protection-act-caloppa/#sthash.0FdRbT51.dpuf
According to CalOPPA we agree to the following:
Users can visit our site anonymously.
Once this privacy policy is created, we will add a link to it on our home page or as a minimum on the first significant page after entering our website.
Our Privacy Policy link includes the word ‘Privacy’ and can be easily be found on the page specified above.
Users will be notified of any privacy policy changes:
       On our Privacy Policy Page
Users are able to change their personal information:
       By logging in to their account
How does our site handle do not track signals?
We honor do not track signals and do not track, plant cookies, or use advertising when a Do Not Track (DNT) browser mechanism is in place.
Does our site allow third-party behavioral tracking?
It’s also important to note that we do not allow third-party behavioral tracking


COPPA (Children Online Privacy Protection Act)


When it comes to the collection of personal information from children under 13, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) puts parents in control. The Federal Trade Commission, the nation’s consumer protection agency, enforces the COPPA Rule, which spells out what operators of websites and online services must do to protect children’s privacy and safety online.

We do not specifically market to children under 13.


Fair Information Practices


The Fair Information Practices Principles form the backbone of privacy law in the United States and the concepts they include have played a significant role in the development of data protection laws around the globe. Understanding the Fair Information Practice Principles and how they should be implemented is critical to comply with the various privacy laws that protect personal information.

In order to be in line with Fair Information Practices we will take the following responsive action, should a data breach occur:
We will notify the users via in-site notification
       Within 7 business days
We also agree to the Individual Redress Principle, which requires that individuals have a right to pursue legally enforceable rights against data collectors and processors who fail to adhere to the law. This principle requires not only that individuals have enforceable rights against data users, but also that individuals have recourse to courts or government agencies to investigate and/or prosecute non-compliance by data processors.




The CAN-SPAM Act is a law that sets the rules for commercial email, establishes requirements for commercial messages, gives recipients the right to have emails stopped from being sent to them, and spells out tough penalties for violations.

We collect your email address in order to:
To be in accordance with CANSPAM we agree to the following:

If at any time you would like to unsubscribe from receiving future emails, you can email us at

and we will promptly remove you from ALL correspondence.

Contacting Us


If there are any questions regarding this privacy policy you may contact us using the information below.

Ballarat, Victoria 3356

Last Edited on 2016-03-18

Week 2 questions:

a) What are the four (4) main points Michael Rappa makes about search? Please write them on your blog page:

Michael Rappa was a professor from North Carolina State University. He explained the processes of how a webpage actually gets noticed, especially with the overwhelming amount of data that floods the internet each day. Search engines are an integral part of businesses or people with products trying to attract people to their e-businesses. A search engine is mainly compromised of these four things:

1. It is a data base: of urls, associated key words, text and images that get uploaded through this mechanism. Another approach to keeping a data base was in reference to Yahoo’s structure, where people edited the structures manually, thus the complexity was just too much.

2. Collection mechanism for adding data into the data base. For example not all databases will have every single piece of information out there. Wikipedia for example is an organisation that provides information pages manually created by a large range of volunteers. While most of it’s pages have a lot of valuable information, not all of their data will be correct or contain every single fact about that subject. Collection mechanisms are not able to collect and display all information out there.

3. Search protocol: which enables users to query the data base. For example users are able to type in a question on a search bar, in the form of a question, the search bar will be able to recognise what the user is intended to search. There are also types of languages and government documents that will affect what search results will appear on which service. Webpages also have paid placement search: which are important on google where you put a name or phrase and the results which are returned on the search, where a combination of search results appear and then sorted by an algorithm (mentioned next).

4. Ranking algorithm: that determines how results are presented to the user. This is where key words and phrases are recognised and then links are returned to the user. Businesses can use the paid placement search where their pages may be placed at the top of the searched links, making it more easy for consumers to find and want to click on their links. They can even pay to have their link permanently displayed on top of search pages such as google and yahoo. Users may even type questions into the search bar rather than syntax oriented key words that would give more defined results, often consumers write questions that are often typed and come up in the suggested results tab.


(Michael Rappa. (2006). Retrieved 06 March, from http://digitalenterprise.org/transcripts/navigation_tr.html)
b) Watch or read the Marissa Mayer interview. Marissa says ‘search is in its infancy’. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? What is your personal experience with search? There are no right or wrong answers here, I just want your opinion.

Search, is most definitively in it’s ‘early’or ‘infant like’ stage. Marissa Mayer explains that there is still a long way to go in reference to searches. Speaking from the consumers point of view, she spoke about how users were questioning why search is so much easier on the world wide web but no so much on a functional computer. Why isn’t it? Because alike the whole movement to e-commerce in the last 50 years, search engines are catching up to the multitude of data and specificity of search algorithms and search mechanisms. There are executives, engineers and in-house ideas that are getting Google one step further towards creating better searches for it’s users. The limiting attribute of searching images and ‘voice to text’, is slowly getting refined and will become a feature of search on YouTube. I think searches are getting better and better, I mean google is my number one stop for search, yahoo has seemed to just fall behind. We are wanting a broader scope of information but we want the results in the search bar to fit a specific criteria, instead of trolling the internet for long hours. Search has come a long way but in regards to text to image, voice to text and searches that are not completely bombarded with paid placement ads, we still have some ground to make.

2) Please watch the Bill Joy video, and it will give you a good background to the Internet and particularly to the emergence of the World Wide Web.

a) So what are the 6 webs?

In reference to the article:

(Jason Pontin. MIT Technology Review, Bill Joy’s Six Webs. Retrieved March 06, 2016, from https://www.technologyreview.com/s/404694/etc-bill-joys-six-webs/)

Bill Joy’s six Webs include the following: a way of organizing the internet’s phases, in 1995. Mobility and personal devices and their future. Protocols were created, emerging internet connected devices. Better software was developing (remote controls turned into touch screens with radio).

1. The Near Web: Defined by information and typing with keypad and watching with a screen.  You were close to the screen, at a reading distant and you had a key and a mouse. The size of text and the way you format text also deemed you under the ‘near web’. The web was going to affect these devices. Mid 1990’s were the web was emerging (which was going to impact the entertainment experience and these handhold devices.) For example a notebook computer could now surf the world wide web. Wireless notebooks would overtake the desktop computers that were not wireless (with ethane cables etc). Near web was a mobile and easily accessed. This went onto the development of the here web…
2. The Here Web. The internet which you access currently, from your cell phone or iPad for example. Your personal computer may be on you all the time, wireless connections, becomes part of your identity and replaces the need for your credit card for example. Your mobile phone or computer for example. Information that would personalised to you and your device. Authored and created for such a device. It replaces what you had to have on you in the previous technology generation. The thing you most fear to lose will be your mobile or mobile computer. The screens are generally smaller and not used for bigger applications like movie viewing, it’s about storing all your personal data. It would be personalised to you. Ear pieces and transmitters limit the need to have display on the phone.
3. The Far Web. Another way of relating to the information, they are three types of different media. This is the Internet you see when you sit back from a big screen – like a television or a kiosk, according to the article. Sitting back far from a screen, interconnection is powerful and abstract away from the details, we can get a perspective on this technology and not become distracted by day to day innovations. For example the development of ‘Java’, how many web’s could they identify to sort out of the chaos and data from the expansion of the internet. There was a pushed broad casted media. The slow deployment of broadband in America, meant most of the innovation went into the entertainment for example Sony and high definition viewing. The far web is almost about what we cannot see, for example the development of copy protection and rights management. Personal publishing is now becoming available (which is becoming more of a here web, rather than a far web). This progression shows how the far web is very corporate and the here web is more personalised. He says that mass entertainment (in context of the far web) will be overtaken by the personal here web because the mobility in that industry.
4. The Weird Web. Accessing the web through your voice, for example the voice recognition in a car can allow you to process your voice messages and talk to people while not taking your eyes off the road. This is the Internet you access through your voice and which you listen to – say when you are in your car, or when you talk to an intelligent system on your phone, or when you ask your camera a question. Joy presents the ideal that this Web does not yet fully exist. There is voice web, things do not have to have visible keyboards and mice for you to interact with them. For example a service like tell me, talk recognition or through the here web with an ear piece and headphones. That can fit into your pocket, batteries and a transmitter. These four webs have focus upon entrepreneurial activity which allows us to sort out what is happening with the internet. Yahoo and Google are near webs at the moment but are both trying to get into mobility as well as the entertainment industry. Companies must see the larger picture, a spectrum will create alternatives to availability to large contexts of availabilities.

Two additional webs:  
5. B2B. This is a web which does not have a consumer interface, it is where business machines talk to other businesses (or their machines) to remove friction and to automate business processors between suppliers and producers, customers and systems working together. An enormous asset to have this kind of connectivity.
6. D2D. Device to device (embedded or meshed network), for example a mesh of sensors within a building, they are monitors. The sensors make the city more and more aware, example footage of traffic congestion, it could tell us when a restaurant table is free etc. This Web also does not yet exist. Joy says that it will embed machine intelligence in ordinary, daily life.

“The Here Web” – is the most productive of new innovation.”We can move around in an office and not be stuck to one spot (with a computer or a desk). We are becoming more mobile and are only partially untethered. These 6 Webs are a great organising principle for understanding how the internet is going to change. For example the personal computer is becoming impersonal, for example at Mac if a computer breaks, we do not worry because we have saved our data in different places. A mobile device is more of a personal and communication device. Batteries, publishing speed, etc can all be improved upon, expanding the market.

b) Could there be more? With the advances in material science, we are started to see new processes and assembly practices that can revolution the personal computer wave. Innovation in energy and new material and broad techniques could create more multi themed decade. He said that these 6 themes or webs will play out over the course of his life, but after that there definitely could be more. A whole new wave of companies have a better chance of improving upon these webs, for the open source of data and collaboration. Skype for example is based on voice and facial recognition, voice will rise to a more proportional position within the web. These 6 webs are multifaceted and all new webs will occur from the initial points of these webs, whether there will be more webs created after the prediction of Bill Joy, we will have to wait and see.
c) What does it mean for business? Entrepreneurial opportunities! Successful enterprises take time to make them great, modern organisations have more inter-connected opportunity (the open source, a non hierarchical organisation, a flat business plan) has seen more collaboration and invention. Open source induces low cost devices to be put together. The expansion of the web is showing more and more places to grow and for businesses to improve upon here, new, far, d2d and b2b webs. Networks are growing across boarders, expanding communication and new business exchange. Connection cannot be solely online. This wave of innovation will endure a need for businesses to embrace all the 6 webs, a culture and partnership needs to continually invest in the future. Networks are vital for this era, the challenge is to take the innovation in these new ventures and make them long term and about serving customers and taking managerial risks.

(These answers were largely referenced and quoted from the Bill Joy video).

Part 2 – History of the Internet

The world wide web is just one part of the internet. All revision sourced from:

Vangie Beal. (2016). The Difference Between the Internet and World Wide Web. Updated December 14, 2015 / Posted June 24, 2010, from http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/Web_vs_Internet.asp)

Internet definition: “The internet is a network of networking, it is the infrastructure for the networks. Computers link to a network which connects them to millions of other networks. It does this through the great and vast world of the internet!”

The world wide web is basically referred to as the ‘web’, we access information and data with the web, through the internet (as a medium). HTTP protocols are used on the WEB, which is one of the languages spoken on the internet. HTTP applications allow us to connect and communicate with businesses, exchange data and use the WEB to share information. The web uses browsers such as internet explorer to access web documents called webpages. Web pages can link to each other through hyperlinks. They contain, image, text, video etc in the web documents.

The web is only one facet of the internet. The internet also has email which relies on SMTP, instant messaging and etc. (which all are not classified as the ‘web’). The web is the largest part of the internet though.

Information sourced from: http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/Web_vs_Internet.asp

 Reference list:

Jason Pontin. MIT Technology Review, Bill Joy’s Six Webs. Retrieved March 06, 2016, from

Michael Rappa. (2006). Retrieved 06 March, from http://digitalenterprise.org/transcripts/navigation_tr.html

Vangie Beal. (2016). The Difference Between the Internet and World Wide Web. Updated December 14, 2015 / Posted June 24, 2010, from http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/Web_vs_Internet.asp






Week 1 questions.

Questions to consider:

1) Who uses the Internet and for what reasons?

The internet is now widely accepted on a global scale. According to (Miniwatts Marketing Group. Internet World Stats. (2015). Retrieved 06 March, from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm), there are over 3,366,261,156 internet users, documented in 2015, worldwide. This has transposed a growth of 832.5% between 2000-2015. At a global scale there are multiple uses for this technology, such as for educational purposes.

According to the study: (National Center for Education Statistics. Education Statistics Quarterly. (2003). Retrieved on 01 March, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED492617.pdf#page=8), in 2001 90% of children in America were already using computers between the ages of 13 and 17. 59% were using the internet. These educational purposes include, the use of the intranet though schooling, where government network use intern tools, such as web browsers and internet protocols. The installation of school computers, iPads and digital equipment are allowing the internet to apply as research tools, developing this new digital age, where textbooks can be accessed in less than a second.

In 2015 there were 313,867,363% of North Americans are using the internet, while a large percentile came from the ‘digital generation’, this generation consisted of people born between 1995 and 2007, in accordance to (Isocostas. List of Generations chart. Retrieved on 06 March, from http://www.esds1.pt/site/images/stories/isacosta/secondary_pages/10%C2%BA_block1/Generations%20Chart.pdf). These people of the 21st century rely heavily upon internet usage. Social has exploded into the industry. According to (Amanda Lenhart. Teens, Social Media & Technology Overview. (2015). Retrieved on 06 March, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015/), “24% of teens go online “almost constantly,” facilitated by the widespread availability of smartphones.” “From the ages of 13 to 17, go online several times a day, and 12% report once-a-day use.” For example: Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Vine and Tinder are all largely accessed where participants can connect with friends, fans and social groups.

While social media has a large teenage and young adult following, the rise the internet is also impacting the older generations. E-commerce is quickly replacing traditional commerce where ordering, processing and shipment are now digital rather than being physical. This social media phase has allowed big online businesses to market their products directly to those who use the media, following their “likes” and “interests”, tailoring a selective directive to stores online.  Businesses are a major participant on the internet. More and more businesses are going online and engaging in electronic-commerce, where the process of buying, selling, or exchanging products, services or information occurs via computer (or even by smartphone nowadays).

According to (Michael Rappa. Introduction: being digital. (2010). Retrieved 06 March ,from http://digitalenterprise.org/introduction/intro.html), A large percentile of users enter into the digital world to complete various tasks. These can range from emails, operating an eBay store, messaging friends, selling work, creating blogs or playing or downloading games. The possibilities are endless. The internet now is targeting all age groups. Children are using smartphones and educational games and webpages at school and at home. Teenagers are constantly scrolling social media and so are adults. The elderly are now using smart phones and conducting their emails, and sorting out bills online. Businesses are the major focus on the internet, there are stores, retailers, marketers and agents all bidding to find suitable customers or fans to connect with online. Mentioned previously, businesses are able to have a global reach and can access consumer’s wants and desires by following their likes and interests online. This expands business and can engage customers once thought to be ‘unreachable’ now become a new target for retail.

 2) In thinking about your own usage (aside from this course), do you consider the Internet more a convenience or a necessity in your daily life?

If you asked me this question nine years ago, I would have said that the internet was barely a necessity and definitely a convenience for connecting my Tamagotchi to the “Tama-Town” site, (you may have heard of), using dial up and telling everyone to stop using the phone. Books had every bit of knowledge I needed, email was up and coming but that wasn’t really a necessity to a ten year old. If you asked me again now in 2016 and at the age of 19, I say that the internet has become an integral part of society. Having the aspiration to have an online business, I agree that e-commerce is the way to access a larger amount of people. Facebook, and its group messaging capability highlights that importance of the internet. I am able to connect with nearly 600 people on my account with just a click of a mouse. In reference to the 2015 statistics from (Miniwatts Marketing Group. Internet World Stats. (2015). Retreived 06 March, from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm), 7,259,902,243 people from around the world have internet access and 3,366,261,156 of them were using it for a range of purposes. Realistically, I am one of them. I connect with social media on a regular basis, my email occurs online, I watch YouTube videos and stream music from Spotify. Federation University also communicates via the internet and emails, I would say that the internet is vital to my daily life, now.

3) When connected to the Internet, what products or services do you use most often?

In reference to the statistics sourced from: (Stanford SIQSS Study. (2000). Retrieved 06 March, from http://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs201/projects/personal-lives/stanford.html), email is the most popular tool on the internet. Whilst I do access my emails quite often, I am not embedded with 100’s per day let alone, 10. I use social media services to connect with my friends and family. I would say that I use YouTube (a video application) most of the time. I am able to browse comedic videos and I follow a wide variety of people. Uploads of videos even notify my phone so that I remember to watch them. I also spend time using the internet as a research tool almost every day, whether that is in relation to study for university or looking up topics of interest that arise in conversation.

In relation to services, there are times where I have looked online for a retailor, to see what prices or service they will charge. For example for the local dentist or spas. I generally buy products online rather than ordering services (such as pizza delivery etc.).

For applications I use; iTunes to buy and download music, I use Facebook that connects me with boutiques and fashion stores that I may buy from. I also have used the application ‘Wanelo’ that pools fashion items into your feed so that you have a wide range of clothing to choose from.

 4) What is it about the Internet that is fundamentally different from earlier methods of communication?

The internet is arguably the fastest method of communication in reference to (Vinten G Cerf. Musings on the internet. Page 76-84. Retrieved March 06, from https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0256.pdf), High Ethernet speeds create reliability and fast communication. Initially forms of communication outside of your immediate environment would require postage or even delivery by horse and cart, even appliances are now “internet appliances” (Retrieved March 06, from https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0256.pdfpage 80) doors are automatic and toilets flush themselves. Phones can control the dim settings on lights. We are at a digital age.

In contrast to this digital age of online messaging, email, face time (video calls) and ‘Snap Chat’ photo apps, earlier methods of communication included: cave paintings (most privative form) that appeared around 130,000 B.C.E. Apparently, according to scholars the paintings depicted which foods were safe to eat (which communicated a message). This is in reference to: (Creative displays. History of Communication from Cave Drawings to the Web. Retrieved 06 March, from http://www.creativedisplaysnow.com/articles/history-of-communication-from-cave-drawings-to-the-web/). Next there were ‘early handwritten documents or books,’ which occurred 1,000 years before the invention of the printing press (which allowed ink to be pressed into manuscripts). These were often religious and communicated ancient beliefs. According to this site, next came the ‘letter’ and the ‘postman’ which allowed for (you guessed it!), letters to be delivered door to door. In 1775 the first post office was opened in America. This was slow going initially, letters could take large amounts of time to reach others (this limited opportunity for instant communication).

The telegraph came about and was more efficient and quick to communicate messages than those before it.  It sent electro-static-generated signals through a wire. “An Englishman by the name of William Watson had devised a way to send messages via telegraph in 1747.” This is quoted from (Creative displays. History of Communication from Cave Drawings to the Web. Retrieved 06 March, from http://www.creativedisplaysnow.com/articles/history-of-communication-from-cave-drawings-to-the-web/)

Obviously the next step in communication was the telephone! Finally we were able to dial up others with a telephone to have instant communication, with the impact of listening to the others voice. Radio followed the telephone, we were able to stream voices and music over a radio frequency, not only creating a more direct form of communication of music but also of messages such as fire warnings and advertisements through a radio wave.

Cell phones became popular and images were able to be sent through the devices, cell phones increased the availability of communication. The text messages offered a quicker way of directly reaching another, data services could connect these to the internet! The Internet was invented in 1967, initially for military purposes. Today we use the internet in a variety of ways but we can agree that the internet can provide all forms of communication including, instant message, phone calls, video calls, emails and more. The one thing it lacks, is the ability to have people connect humanly and like in the old days. Face to face, but actually face to face. It is a wonderfully weird form of communication and now is an integral part of most societies.

 5) Looking ahead to the next decade, what do you forsee emerging as a direct result of the continued evolution of digital technology?

Digital technology is only growing, statistically from 2000-2015 the amount of people using the internet (one of digital technologies biggest aspects), has 46.4 % of the world’s population online. This growth has been documented as an 832.5% growth in users within 15 years. These statistics are sourced from: (Miniwatts Marketing Group. Internet World Stats. (2015). Retreived 06 March, from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm). The digital age is here and day by day it will feel no different but overtime, everything will be operated digitally until our planet changes. I do think that there are many positives, we can use the digital age to spread light, love and morals through the internet, we can affect the masses and we can make change. We have incited movement, limited paper wastage by turning to email, we can use less electricity, found alternative to burn less coal, we can affect movements. I hope the digital age becomes one with an ethical and environmental outlook. Saving electricity and sharing messages so that we can become a more happy and healthy earth, spreading positive awareness to global issues. While the digital age becomes more and more a part of our lives, I hope we grow more and more intent on creating ethical businesses, create more solutions to global problems, save energy and have online resources that entail local communities to buy from their own country, even if this means it is online. I want to be involved in this digital age but I want to benefit society and provide valuable resources and products globally. The statistics stated on (http://digitalenterprise.org/navigation/nav.html) Show the global amount of internet users in November 2006. The current digital media universe estimate that there were 488,865,738 users.

Within the article (http://archives.obs-us.com/obs/english/books/nn/bd40696.htm), The author states that, he was quite optimistic, about the developing digital world. He also stated that over “half of the populations of developing nations are under 20, in contrast to less than a third in developed countries.” He went on to suggest that a large youth population (associated with the new digital age), “is an asset as nations move forward, particularly in countries where older members of society are less literate.” This came to provide hope for under-developed nations to grasp onto the internet and digital waves.

The young are becoming literate in technology rather than writing on paper, this movement and development is propelling the world into new digital age.

Reference list:

Creative displays. History of Communication from Cave Drawings to the Web. Retrieved 06 March, from http://www.creativedisplaysnow.com/articles/history-of-communication-from-cave-drawings-to-the-web/

Isocostas. List of Generations chart. Retrieved on 06 March, from http://www.esds1.pt/site/images/stories/isacosta/secondary_pages/10%C2%BA_block1/Generations%20Chart.pdf

Michael Rappa. Introduction: being digital. (2010). Retrieved 06 March ,from http://digitalenterprise.org/introduction/intro.html

Miniwatts Marketing Group. Internet World Stats. (2015). Retreived 06 March, from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm

National Center for Education Statistics. Education Statistics Quarterly. (2003). Retreived on 01 March, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED492617.pdf#page=8

 Stanford SIQSS Study. (2000). Retrieved 06 March, from http://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs201/projects/personal-lives/stanford.html

Vinten G Cerf. Musings on the internet. Page 76-84. Retrieved March 06, from https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0256.pdf

Retrieved March 06, from https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0256.pdfpage 80

Current Digital Media Universe Estimate


This blog is dedicated to the E-business class of 2016 at Federation University. You will find weekly questions that target the core components that E-business entails.

The purpose of this blog is to build the coherent skills in order to operate and transpose sites that will instil business back into Australia’s grasp. I wish to build my skills online so that one day I can run my own webpage promoting a travel/comedy blog whilst owning an online store that would generate some income.